Femoral artery

Femoral artery is the main artery of lower limb and here we study femoral artery into some points that are given below.


A. Inguinal ligament
B. Femoral triangle – Femoral sheath
C. Femoral artery branches – Trochanteric and cruciate anastomosis
D. Saphenous opening/hiatus – Content
E. Clinicals- Femoral artery pulse – Mid inguinal point

A. Inguinal Ligament (ASIS* to Pubic tubercle)-

1. After crossing inguinal ligament external iliac artery (branch of common iliac artery) is called femoral artery.

And femoral artery continue below as genicular artery.

2. Before crossing Inguinal ligament external iliac artery gives two branches- Deep circumflex iliac artery and inferior epigastric artery.

Question– Cremasteric artery (supplied to the cremasteric muscle of scrotum) is the branch of inferior epigastric artery.

NOTE: Superior epigastric artery is the branch of internal thoracic artery (branch of subclavian artery).

And both superior and inferior epigastric artery are the content of rectus sheath (for more detail see rectus sheath blog)

*ASIS (Anterior Superior iliac Spine)

B. Femoral Triangle-

1. Femoral artery is the content of femoral triangle.

In femoral triangle, femoral artery present in the femoral sheath.

2. Femoral sheath have three compartment that are given below and the femoral artery are present on lateral compartment of femoral sheath.

a. Lateral or arterial compartment- Femoral artery and femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve are present in this compartment.

NOTE: Genitofemoral nerve arise from lumbar plexus (L1 and L2 root), and divide into two branches-
1. Genital branch- present in spermatic cord and spermatic cord are present in inguinal canal. (see diagram)
2. femoral branch- present in arterial compartment of femoral sheath.

For more detail watch lumbar plexus (Only One Chart) video on our official YouTube channel The Charsi of Medical Literature.

b. Intermediate or venous compartment-
In this compartment femoral vein present.

c. Medial or lymphatic compartment-
• It is also called femoral canal.
• Base of the femoral canal is called femoral ring.
• Throw femoral ring and canal femoral hernia occur. (See clinicals point of this blog)
• In this compartment lymph nodes of cloquet or rosenmuller, and lymphatics present. 

NOTE: There are four words- Femoral triangle, Femoral sheath, Femoral canal, and Femoral ring.
For more detail watch femoral triangle video on our official YouTube channel The Charsi of Medical Literature.

C. Branches-

Femoral artery have 7 branches (see diagram)

Three superficial branches- 1, 2, and 3

1. Superficial circumflex iliac artery
2. Superficial epigastric artery
3. Superficial external pudendal artery

Three deep branches- 4, 5, and 6

4. Profunda femoris artery 

NOTE: In upper limb we read profunda brachii artery and this is the branch of brachial artery.

Profunda femoris artery divide into three branche’s-

a. LCFA (Lateral Circumflex Femoral Artery)
b. MCFA (Medial Circumflex Femoral Artery)

NOTE: In upper limb we read ACHA* and PCHA*, both are the branch of axillary artery.

*ACHA (Anterior Circumflex Humeral Artery)
*PCHA (Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery)

NOTE: Ascending branch of LCHA and MCHA take participate in trochanteric anastomosis.
NOTE: Transverse branch of LCHA and MCHA take participate in cruciate anastomosis.

c. Perforating branche’s-

• Four in number and each divide into ascending and descending branch.
• Ascending branch of 1st perforating artery take participate in cruciate anastomosis.

For more detail watch trochanteric and cruciate anastomosis video on TCML.

5. Deep external pudendal artery
6. Muscular branches

7. Desending genicular artery
As the clear by name it run downward (descend) and take participate in the genicular anastomosis around knee joint.

D. Saphenous Hiatus/Opening-

1. This is the opening in fascia lata of thigh and present on anterior side of thigh.
2. Content of saphenous opening/Superficial vessels of front of thingh-

Superficial branches of femoral artery transmit through this opening.

a. Superficial circumflex iliac artery and vein
b. Superficial epigastric artery and vein
c. Superficial external pudendal artery and vein
b. GSV (Greater Saphenous Vein)

3. Femoral hernia- Content of femoral hernia transmit in this secquence (Femoral hernia course)

1st Femoral ring – 2nd Femoral canal – 3rd Saphenous opening

E. Clinicals

1. Femoral artery pulse- It can be palpate just below to mid inguinal point (this is the mid point between ASIS* and pubic symphysis)

NOTE: Not confuse with Mid point of inguinal ligament- This is the mid point between ASIS* and pubic tubercle. (See diagram)

*ASIS (Anterior Superior iliac Spine)

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